|E100: Week 13: Miracle stories - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Everyone loves a good miracle story, the Infomercials are full of them, buy this exercise machine use it just 10 minutes a day and be instantly sexually attractive, sleep on our special magnets and your pain will go away and you'll feel 30 years younger. Infomercial miracles sell things: it worked for me, you buy one! I'll have what she's having ;) But despite the temptation for Christians to use them in the same way, in the gospels it's a bit different! We still love a good miracle, but their p...
Keywords: E100; Jesus; Luke gospels; miracles
|E100: Week 7: Bible stories for adults - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
If you thought Bible stories were for children, nice little tales with a nice little moral at the end, then you probably have not been following the E100 up to this point, and you certainly have not been reading the bits the organisers censored out! Bible stories are NOT like that, rather they tell in the most realistic way possible the stories of real people, who we must watch, listen to and then work out how we'll respond...
Keywords: bible; narrative; narrative books; adults; bible stories
|E100-62: Matthew 14:22 - 14:36: Walking on Water - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
As it does in Luke, Matthew's account the feeding of the 5,000 follows after Herod speculating that Jesus is John come back to life, but Matthew used this opportunity to tell the gruesome story of John's death. Luke moved quickly from Johnâs death, to tell of the disciples' successful mission, whereas Matthew tell us that when Jesus heard of Johnâs death he "withdrew to a deserted place". Into this low point where we seem focused on the powerful political opposition that miracle comes as nice ...
Keywords: Jesus; Matthew; miracles; E100
|E100-56: Matthew 5:1 - 6:4: Sermon on the Mount (Part 1) - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Matthew and Luke both give short collections of Jesus teaching early in their Gospels (Mt 5-7 and the second half of Luke 6) there are similarities, both e.g. have âThe Beatitudesâ a series of sayings listing sorts of people who will be blessed by God, near the beginning but each sermon (or summary compilation of Jesus' teaching) has a distinct focus and interests. In the Gospels we don't have a transcript of Jesus' life and teaching, but people's retelling of Jesus' life selected and told wit...
Keywords: Jesus; Matthew; gospel; gospels; teaching; Jesus teaching
|E100-10: Genesis 32-33: God-fighters - Tim Bulkeley|
Another of the most mysterious and difficult stories in the Bible, this time not difficult because the subject pains us, but difficult to understand. We Westerners are hung up on "understanding", sometimes it is better to "stand under" (and learn from) than to understand ;) This may be one of them! If we try to understand the story of Jacob's fight we quickly get a headache, nothing quite works of provides all the answers...
Keywords: Arguing with God; E100; Genesis
|Bonhoeffer on Gen 3 - Conscience - Tim Bulkeley|
Bonhoeffer has some hugely stimulating ideas in his discussion of the "fall" story in Genesis 3. Probably none are more stimulating, or easy to fail to grasp as his thought about "conscience" - at least difficult for people for whom the idea that conscience is the "voice of God within" is deeply embedded, since Bonhoeffer almost reverses that idea, noticing that it is conscience that drives the first humans away from God!
Keywords: deitrich bonhoeffer; genesis; theology; fall
|Biblical Narrative: Fraught with Background: Genesis 24 - Tim Bulkeley|
Eric Auerbach's famous quote about Biblical Narrative being "fraught with background" can sound puzzling. Here I'll try to explain it with reference to some trivial but intriguing details in Genesis 24. Reading the chapter in the Hebrew class we spotted several minor details in the telling that suggest, or hint ;) well, listen and find out what!
Keywords: bible; narrative; narratology; genesis
|E100-75: Acts 10:1 - 11:18: Good News for All - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
In Matt 26 when Peter was supposed to be praying with Jesus he went to sleep, here a similar physical need interrupts his prayer, he's hungry (in Peterâs retelling says he fell asleep here too :) But God uses the two situations quite differently - here his hunger gives him a vision! When God says... ! OK God's message to Peter is quite clear, the behavioural rules that we think measure God's favour don't, the good news of God's love is for everyone...
Keywords: E100; Jesus; NT Acts; Law; Peter; rules
|Jesus as fulfilment of Scripture: Slavery and Spanking - Tim Bulkeley|
This 'cast continues the theme of Jesus as the "fulfilment" of Scripture, looking at one topic that's been settled for decades, and another that's as hot as today's headlines. (At least here in NZ where a bill to criminalise parents spanking children is set to become law shortly!)
Keywords: bible; Jesus; Proverbs; Reading; spanking; discipline
|E100 Week 12: The teachings of Jesus the prophet - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
This week's readings contain a sample of Jesus teachings. In reading them we will notice two things particularly that will help us better understand: (a) Jesus is a prophet: so the rules we learnt for reading Old Testament prophets will help us understand Jesus. These rules were: Prophets spoke to a context: knowing the who, what, when, where, how & why can help us get the point. Prophetic speech is often a conversation...
Keywords: Jesus; Matthew; gospel; gospels; parables; teaching; Jesus teaching
|E100-53: Luke 2:1 - 2:40: Jesus' birth - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
This is perhaps the chapter of the Bible that more people have partly heard than any other. We have also heard things that aren't there: like the animals around the manger who don't get a mention in Luke's account â perhaps because their presence in houses as well as "stables" they were taken for granted. Most people have a favourite part of this chapter. My childhood favourite is left out of the set reading, but I'll talk about why other bits have stuck in my mind more recently...
Keywords: Jesus; birth; christmas; mary; Luke; Luke 2
|E100-50: Malachi 1:1 - 4:6: The book that makes the bridge - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Malachi is a short prophetic book, the name Malachi just means "my messenger" which seems to be what the speaker calls himself. It has no more details of time, place or person in the superscription (as most prophetic books do), but the content suggests Judah after the exile under Persian rule. The book opens opens with a strong statement of Yahweh's election of Israel, using hyperbole (exageration) to make it's impact...
Keywords: prophet; prophecy; Malachi; Bible; Old Testament
|E100-44: Proverbs 1:1 - 4:27: Where is wisdom to be found? - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Most of Proverbs contains collections of proverbs (pithy sayings about life) but the book has a nine chapter prologue and a half chapter epilogue. The epilogue is a poem describing an ideal(ised) wife. The prologue seeks to motivate the student (a young male - notice all the "my son" language) to follow his mother's advice and live a faithful, respectable, respectful, honest life. The last chapters sex up this motivational speech by picturing Wisdom as a woman, who should become the young man's ...
Keywords: bible; proverbs; wisdom; apocrypha
|E100-59: Luke 10:25 - 10:37: The Good Samaritan, or is it? - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
OK this story must be one of the best-known that Jesus ever told, everyone has heard it! And if not (at least if they speak English or French or just about any other European language) they know the main characterâs name â The Good Samaritan. Except that, what we know if we know this, is all wrong! Jesus was a prophet so to understand what heâs doing here we need to remind ourselves how Prophets work...
Keywords: E100; Jesus; Luke; Narrative; NT; Parable; Prophets; Righteousness good Samaritan; Jesus; Luke; Parable; prophet
|E100-55: Matthew 3:13 - 4:17: Testing the Messiah - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Matthew has introduced Jesus, giving his genealogy, linking him to the story of God's chosen people in particular to David the great king (messiah) and Abraham the ancestor (patriarch) whom God first chose and blessed to be the blessing of the rest of humanity, and four really interesting women. He has told the birth, with a focus on kingship (messiah) and opposition (Herrod's massacre of innocents)...
Keywords: Jesus; Matthew; gospel; gospels; incarnation
|E100-41: Psalm 23:1 - 23:6: A psalm of the life of faith - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Perhaps the best known and popular psalm among both Jews and Christiansbut not easy to categorise, except that it expresses trust in God. The imagery makes even better sense when some geography and culture is understood: sheep follow shepherds, they are not left on the hills and then driven green pastures, means land where there is some green vegetation, not just rocks and dust wadis: steep sided gorges, semi-desert little vegetation, quick run off from hills = flash floods For more on this see...
Keywords: psalms; psalm 23; 23rd psalm; lord is my shepherd; shepherd psalm; bible; biblical study
|E100-54: Luke 3:1 - 3:20: Baptism by water and by fire - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
How would you take to John as preacher in your church? He certainly had an attention grabbing opening: You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Luke 3:7 If a little lacking in pastoral skills ;) But for a modern audience it actually gets harder, just as John seems to soften. And then there's Jesus...
Keywords: Luke; Jesus; baptism; Luke 3
|Text, canon, and the woman caught in adultery - Tim Bulkeley|
The pericope in John 7:53-8:11 is a fascinating test case in the interaction of text criticism and canon. Both the history of canon, and textual criticism seem dull and unexciting. Yet here they combine into a detective story or a theological conundrum that contributes to making the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy conflict with most Christian preachers' practice! In this post I won't address the detective story...
Keywords: Canon; John; Textual criticism; biblical studies
|E100 Week 9: Psalms and Proverbs - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
This week's 5 is a somewhat artificial collection, putting together two different things. Yet both Psalms and Proverbs work differently from the narrative/history and prophecy that comprise the bulk of the Old Testament, and both are used a lot by Christians along with Genesis and Isaiah (while most of the Old Testament lies unread the Two-Thirds Bible). In this podcast we'll look at how different genres (see the posts here, especially: Genre matters: 1- Why genre matters) work...
Keywords: psalms; proverbs; bible; biblical study
|Casuistic and apodictic: part 1: What the terms mean - Tim Bulkeley|
The distinction between casuistic and apodictic formulations of "legal" material in the Bible, seems like a prime example of scholarship which has lost touch with the needs of real Bible readers. Not least the abstruse technical language puts people off. Yet this distinction has deeply theological consequences, and Jesus seems to "fulfill" OT law (at least in part) by rephrasing the casuistic as apodictic...
Keywords: Jesus; Law; Matthew; Reading; bible; casuistic; apodictic; genre
|E100-36: 2 Samuel 11:1 - 12:25: David and Bathsheba? - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
These two chapters mark the turning point in David's story. They offer vital clues also to how we "read" biblical narratives. * Nathan's story within a story provides hints, abouit the nature of narrative meaning * David's strange behaviour during his child's illness and on his death provides both a clue to an interpretative rule, and some good practice :)
Keywords: 2 Samuel; Narrative; biblical narrative; Bathsheba; David
|E100-45: Proverbs 16:1 - 18:24: What are proverbs or what is Proverbs? - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Proverbs are pithy sayings. Short, thought-provoking, often using vivid imagery proverbs work by making you think. But they are often used as a source of quick simple answers. The book of Proverbs is a collkection of loads of such sayings with a long preface and short epilogue that encourage young men to meditate on this advice. The goal of Proverbs is lives lived well. A proverb can be applied like a Band Aid to appropriate situations, BUT their greatest value is when you meditate them...
Keywords: bible; proverbs; wisdom; proverb
|E100-43: Psalm 103:1 - 103:22: God is faithful and loving - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
There are some technical details to explain: what a "hymn" is (not a long old-fashioned worship song), what it means to "bless God" and the meaning of hesed. But mainly this podcast aims to encourage you to hear the celebration of the creator God who is gracious, even to those who do not deserve it, merciful and above all faithful. It's a beautiful psalm, that expresses how God is not "a god" clearly and sharply, and it just begs us to join in blessing Yahweh!
Keywords: psalms; psalm 103; bible; biblical study
|E100-48: Daniel 6:1 - 6:28: Introducing Daniel - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
In this 5 minute recording I try to introduce Daniel, a book that has been placed among the prophets in Christian Bibles (following the tradition of the old Greek translation) but is not a "prophet" in the Hebrew Bible. The book contains two sorts of material, stories about Daniel, like this one "Daniel in the Lions' Den", and records of Daniel's visions, which seem to speak in a half hidden coded language...
Keywords: Daniel; Bible; biblical study; apocalypitc; lions
|E100-37: 1 Kings 2:1 - 3:28: The great and wise king Solomon - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
In just two chapters we get some of the most beautiful and inspiring, and some of the grubbiest and most bloodthirsty stories in the Bible. It is no wonder that telling the stories of David (with Saul and Solomon and perhaps the rest) as a serial, like a soap opera has the audience panting for more :) In this podcast I'll again point to clues to how we can, and (often of more use) how we should NOT "read" Bible stories...
Keywords: 1 Kings; Solomon; biblical; narrative; bible study
|E100-52: Luke 1:1 - 1:80: Setting the scene - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
The first four verses of Luke set up some expectations for the Gospel. Luke tells us he cares about history and evidence, uses posh Greek words some used by historians (especially Jewish history), yet by naming Theophilus and his use of the first person (I) he also sends other signals. This is history but personal, Greek, but embedded in Judaism and especially Scripture. Then the chapter continues with a string of echoes of the Old Testament Scriptures...
Keywords: Luke; Jesus; Luke 1
|E100-21: Exodus 19:1 - 20:21: The Ten Commandments - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
This reflection focuses on two things from this reading, the significance of calling Israel (in the context of making a covenant) a priestly kingdom and a holy nation, and how we should read/understand the ten commandments. (For that part it may help to listen to some of the podcasts here, in particular Casuistic and apodictic: part 1: What the terms mean.) We'll also end by realising what it means to say Yahweh is a jealous God, and very briefly start thinking about what that jealousy means...
Keywords: exodus; law; ten commandments
|Isaiah 40 in Babylon - Tim Bulkeley|
It is certainly one of my favourite Bible passages, indeed it is many people's favourite Bible chapter. Isaiah 40 is just full of superb phrases and pictures. Whenever it was composed, this chapter really comes to life and sparkles when it is heard as the Judean exiles in Babylon heard, it just before Cyrus the Persian king captured the city. For a better idea of the background watch the Video "Babylon as background to hearing Isaiah 40" (4MB).
Keywords: history; isaiah; bible; biblical studies
|E100-38: 1 Kings 8:1 - 9:9: Solomon and the temple - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Solomon's prayer understands that Yahweh is a different God, the gods (like Ba'al and his crowd) lived in the sky â and lanced thunderbolts down on people they disliked - heaven/sky was like the earth only bigger and better. When Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev said "Gagarin flew into space, but didn't see any God there". Solomon's prayer sees the stupidity of Krushchev - how could the creator of universes be see from a measly 302Kms from earth? But...
Keywords: 1 Kings; Solomon; biblical; narrative; bible study
|E100-49: Jonah 1:1 - 4:11: Jonah: a "Why'd he do it?" story - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
These four chapters tell the story of God's prophet Jonah (who attentive Bible students know from 2 Kings 14:25: He restored the border of Israel from Lebo-hamath as far as the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which he spoke by his servant Jonah son of Amittai, the prophet, who was from Gath-hepher. This true prophet runs away from God, says a long prayer inside a fish, preaches a five word sermon and converts the capital of an unusually brutal empire, and...
Keywords: prophet; prophecy; Jonah; Bible; Old Testament; humour; humor
|Sexual humour in Esther - Tim Bulkeley|
The book of Esther tells a terrible story, of attempted genocide averted. Too often Christian readers miss the humour in the story, of course some of it is sex related, and/or poking fun at gender expectations, so perhaps there are reasons for the blindness.
Keywords: esther; sex; humour; homor; bible; narrative
|E100-51: John 1:1 - 1:18: Mystery as poetry - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
As a child I loved those old hymns that talked about God as a mystery: Immortal, invisible, God only wise, in light inaccessible hid from our eyes... Even if at first I had to ask what some of the words meant ;) actually understanding the words doesn't end the mystery... John one has the same effect except the words are easy - it's how they are used that's magic :) This brain twisting poetry is also chock full of solid Christian doctrine.
Keywords: Jesus; John; poetry; prologue; prolog; mystery
|E100 Week 10: Prophets: three principles to unlock the code - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Prophets and prophecy: the most misunderstood part of OT, âmysterious messengersâ. A random chunk from a prophetic book will offer a confusing, seemingly muddled, confusion of vivid picture language. Yet, three simple principles can (usually) unlock the mystery and allow the prophets to speak: * conversion not prediction * context not timeless * conversation not monologue As I'll explain briefly in this podcast these three principles can cause mere fortune tellers to become evangelists, and th...
Keywords: prophet; prophecy; understanding the prophets; Bible; Old Testament
|E100-47: Jeremiah 1:1 - 3:5: Getting started as a prophet - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
The call of Jeremiah should really have come before the Isaiah reading, as it gives us a good introduction to what a prophet is, and what prophets do. This reading also gives us a clear idea why prophets were often not much appreciated by the people to whom they were sent to proclaim God's message. There is so much one could talk about here, that I will focus mainly on Jeremiah's call and what that tells us about prophets, to help you understand other prophetic books...
Keywords: Jeremiah; prophet; prophecy; understanding the prophets; Bible; Old Testament
|E100 Week 11: The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
What is a âGospelâ? Not a collection of sayings, because they tell more stories, but not a biography, they almost miss out most of Jesus' life! We'll get an idea what Gospels really are by looking at how each Gospel concludes (Matt 28:17-20; Mark 16:15-20; Luke 24:51-53; John 20:30-31). Then, the four gospels begin so differently! They are different so we get four different âtakesâ on Jesus, a full rounded view, not one person's biases.
Keywords: Jesus; John; Luke; Mark; Matthew; gospel; gospels
|Genesis 1: Beginning right - Tim Bulkeley|
This chapter is the beginning of the Bible, and beginnings are important. We learn why the world was made, and how God is "different". Among other structural details we will notice is this one (the diagramme may help as you listen): Day Creation Day Creation One Light Four Luminaries Two Water and Sky Five Birds and Sea Creatures Three Land and Vegetation Six Land animals (inc. Humans)
Keywords: bible; creation; genesis; structure
|Direct speech in biblical narratives - Tim Bulkeley|
There are many ways in which the story-tellers of the Bible ensure that their tellings are lively and engaging. One is through the way they report speech. There is usually more "direct speech" (where the words of a character are "quoted") then "indirect speech" (where the teller tells us the gist of what the character said). This direct speech is often skillfully crafted to give a lively and rich portrayal of the person...
Keywords: 1 Samuel; Jonah; Narrative; Ruth
|E100-42: Psalm 51:1 - 51:19: Have mercy on me - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
The biblical text tells us how to read this psalm. Whether or not we agree with those who see the words âbuild the walls of Jerusalemâ at the end as a reference to the need to (re)build after the destruction of 586, and so (perhaps along with other reasons) see the psalm as actually written later, we are told to read the psalm against the story of David's sin and Nathan's visit NB: the headings like are often printed as if they had less authority than the big bold headings Bible publishers ad...
Keywords: psalms; psalm 51; david; bible; biblical study
|E100-40: 2 Kings 25:1 - 25:30: The holy city falls - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Today's is a grim reading. But such brutality was not unusual in the Ancient Near East. The Assyrians, for example, when they captured the Judean city of Lachish after a siege in 701BC impaled the surviving leaders outside the city, and left a mass grave of 1,500 people (mainly women and children). Despite what one might even see as gentle treatment of the city by the Babylonians in 586, the fall of Jesusalem marked Hebrew thought deeply because it was God's city, their last toehold of political...
Keywords: 2 Kings; Jerusalem; biblical; narrative; bible study; exile
|E100-46: Isaiah 51:1 - 53:12: Reading prophets for pleasure and profit - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
I have not focused these 5 Minutes on how Is 53 speaks so clearly about Jesus, it is the Old Testament passage that is most clearly, directly and simply fulfilled in Christ. But that status should not make it paradigmatic for undedrstanding how Jesus fulfills Scripture. For more on that (and there is nothing on that in this podcast :( see What DOES "fulfil" mean? And other podcasts on this topic here...
Keywords: history; prophet; prophecy; bible; biblical studies
|Amos 7:14 presuppositions and rhetoric - Tim Bulkeley|
Amos 7:14 is a striking problem for interpreters, not least because what Amos is reported as saying to Amaziah seems to contradict what he is reported to be doing in the rest of the book. This makes it fertile ground for us to incorporate either our presuppositions or rhetoric into the text. (I use the NIV and Grasping Godâs Word) as examples in this but do not intend disrespect for the translators or authors, just to suggest they are human too! Duvall, J...
Keywords: bible; amos; prophecy; context; reading
|A Text without Contexts is Dumb! - Tim Bulkeley|
This podcast is aimed at real beginners in biblical study and addresses why multiple contexts are important for reading/hearing texts, particularly the Bible.
Keywords: bible; context; interpretation; reading; culture; genesis psalms
|E100-91: 1 Corinthians 13:1-13: The Most Excellent Way - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
There's so much in this chapter! No wonder it's a favourite to read at weddings, for indeed it does describe a sort of love that is far removed from the sugary candy floss that popular culture usually presents as "romantic". Though of course Paul is not writing about marriage, but about the greatest gift given by Godâs Holy Spirit. So nowâs our chance (if we are not "Charismatic" with a capital C) to beat those benighted speakers of tongues over the head with a powerful Scriptural sword! Of co...
Keywords: 1&2 Corinthians; E100; 1 cor 13; love
|E100 week 2: Genesis 12-36: Patriarchs, Matriarchs and Faith - Tim Bulkeley|
The first week's readings covered the prologue to Genesis, the second week covers the Ancestors of Faith, the Matriarchs and Patriarchs of Israel. Here we begin to see the first outlines of God's plan to restore a world warped and twisted by human sin. We also begin to discover what it means to be "people of faith". ABRAHAM - PROMISE The first vertical window from the entrance on the north side represents Abraham and promise...
Keywords: E100; bible; Faith; Genesis; Sin
|E100-35: 2 Samuel 5:1 - 7:29: Bible stories have depth! - Dr Tim Bulkeley|
Bible stories, with a few exceptions (maybe some parables for example) do NOT have nice neat "morals". If you want to say "and the moral of the story is..." don't read the Bible. But by contrast if you want people with real depth, who make it difficult for us to work out what their motives are, and therefore hard to simply place them in appropriate "boxes", the Bible is the book for you :) In this reading we'll notice depth and complexity in two of the less central characters, Michal and Nathan...
Keywords: 2 Samuel; narrative; Bible stories
|Jonah pt.2: Jon 1:3 - What's going on? - Tim Bulkeley|
So, here's the second part of the Jonah series. This time we focus on 1:3. Again we end with a question - but at least the right question is better than the wrong answer!
Keywords: bible; jonah; genre
|Obadiah and Jonah - Tim Bulkeley|
Juxtaposition: putting things together to make something "more than the sum of the parts" is a common artistic skill, it is common (but often unrecognised) in the Bible. As my least favourite book of the Bible helps reveal!
Keywords: isaiah; jonah; obadiah; bible
|Humour in the Bible: Part 1: Introducing Saul - Tim Bulkeley|
This is the first of what might need to be a long series! Just to do justice to the introduction of Saul in 1 Sam 9 I'll need at least 2 posts ;)
Keywords: Bible; 1 Samuel; humour; humor; saul
|E100-9: Genesis 27-28: Dysfunctional but chosen - Tim Bulkeley|
Don't look for happy families in the tales of the ancestors, matriarchs and patriarchs, of God's chosen people. Genesis 27-28 carry the story into the next two generations but present a thoroughly dysfunctional family. Yet Genesis 28 tells also of one of the most dramatic revelations of God and renewal of Godâs promises to this chosen people. These chapters present a powerful reminder that humans are full of and ruled by sin, but that Godâs grace is not thwarted so easily...
Keywords: E100; Genesis; Grace; Sin
|Casuistic and apodictic: part 3: Jesus reads more Scripture - Tim Bulkeley|
We look at how Jesus reads other Bible passages (still in Matthew 5) to begin confirming the hypothesis that to read Scripture with Jesus is to make it so extreme that rules (casuistic law) become goals (apodictic command). Before you get to the next podcast it would be a good idea to listen to "What DOES 'fulfil' mean?" and "Jesus as fulfilment of Scripture: Slavery and Spanking"
Keywords: Jesus; Law; Matthew; Reading; bible; casuistic; apodictic; genre